Scientific Name: Bos taurus and Bos indicus
Common Varieties: Bos taurus include Angus, Red Angus, Shorthorn, Hereford, Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, and Salers. Bos indicus include Brahman, Brangus, Beefmaster, Simbrah, and Santa Gertrudis.
Cow: Adult female that has produced a calf
Bull: Male animal
Steer: Male animal that has been castrated and cannot breed
Heifer: Young female that has not produced a calf
Veal: Calves that are raised to 475-500 pounds
Over 98% of the beef animal is used when it is processed. About 45% of the animal is used for meat and the rest is used for other byproducts including leather, china, glue, film, soap, pharmaceuticals, insulin, gelatins.
The meat from cattle is called beef. The average American eats about 65 pounds of beef each year.
Cattle are ruminants. This means they have one stomach with four separate compartments. Their digestive system allows them to digest plant material by repeatedly regurgitating it and chewing it again as cud. This digestive process allows cattle to thrive on grasses, other vegetation, and feed. A cow chews its cud for about eight hours a day. When an animal chews its cud it is a sign of health and contentment.
Growers consider soil and water conditions, fertility, and pest pressures to decide economically viable growing practices.
Many ranchers run cow-calf operations. They keep a herd of cows to produce calves. The cows are bred to calve in the spring or fall. Cows, like humans, are pregnant for nine months.
For the first three weeks of the calf's life they only drink their mother's milk, because their rumen is not yet fully developed. Rumen is one of the stomach chambers in ruminant animals.
A newborn calve is commonly tagged. Each ear tag has an individual number which helps ranchers pair the mother with their young and track the calf through its lifecycle. Within the first few months, the calves will be branded. A brand is an identification mark for cattle.
Calves are usually sold after they are weaned, at about six-eight months. After weaning, cattle are sent to feedlots for approximately 120 days where they are fed a high-energy ration of grain and hay. After this time called finishing, the cattle are sent to a harvest plant.
No. Head: 128,000
Live Weight: 1,022,000
Gross Total Value: $109,354,000
Data Source: San Joaquin County Crop Report, 2020. https://www.sjgov.org/WorkArea//DownloadAsset.aspx?id=33165
Added Value: Essential Food Production, Essential Worker Employment, Education, Research
1 (24-ounce) bone-in ribeye steak, 2-inch-thick, at room temperature
Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
1 tablespoon canola oil
3 tablespoons unsalted butter
3 cloves garlic, smashed
3 sprigs fresh thyme
2 sprigs fresh rosemary
Using paper towels, pat both sides of the steak dry; season generously with 1 1/4 teaspoons salt and 1/2 teaspoon pepper.
Heat a medium cast iron skillet over medium high heat until very hot, about 1-2 minutes; add canola oil.
Place the steak in the middle of the skillet and cook, turning every 2-3 minutes, until a dark crust has formed on both sides, about 12-14 minutes.
Reduce heat to medium low. Push steak to one side of the skillet; add butter, garlic, thyme and rosemary to opposite side of the skillet, tilting the skillet towards the butter and cooking until butter is foaming, about 30 seconds to 1 minute.
Working carefully, spoon butter over steak for 1-2 minutes, turning over once, until it reaches an internal temperature of 120 degrees F for medium rare, or until desired doneness. Let rest 15 minutes before slicing.